• Enacted March 1, 2000
• Revised December 1, 2011

Mycobiology is an international journal devoted to the publication of fundamental and applied investigations on all aspects of mycology and their traditional allies. It is published quarterly and is the official publication of the Korean Society of Mycology. Mycobiology publishes reports of basic research on fungi and fungus-like organisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi, lichen fungi, oomycetes, moulds, and mushroom. Topics also include molecular and cellular biology, biochemistry, metabolism, developmental biology, environmental mycology, evolution, ecology, taxonomy and systematics, genetics/genomics, fungal pathogen and disease control, physiology, and industrial biotechnology using fungi.

Manuscripts for submission to MYCOBIOLOGY should be prepared according to the following instructions. MYCOBIOLOGY follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, if not described below.


Full-length original research articles, mini-reviews, notes, editorials, and letters to the editor will be published. Mini-reviews are solicited by the Editor-in-Chief or Editorial Board Members to provide an incisive examination of the latest advances in a topic relevant to mycology. However, suggestions and proposals for mini-reviews would be greatly appreciated. Notes are intended for presentation of brief observations that do not warrant full-length papers. Notes should contain solid, experimentally proven data and should not be considered preliminary observations. Symposia supported by the Korean Society of Mycology may be published, as determined by the Editor-in-Chief; such manuscripts are subject to the review process, and charges applicable to other articles. Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of mycology. Letters to the editor should include brief constructive comments that concern previously published articles and interesting cases. Letters to the editor should be submitted no more than 3 months after the paper has been published.

For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) should be applied.

An author is one who made a substantial contribution to the overall design and execution of the experiments; therefore, MYCOBIOLOGY considers all authors responsible for the entire paper. Individuals who provided assistance, e.g., supplied strains or reagents or critiqued the paper, need not be listed as authors, but may be recognized in the Acknowledgements section.

Originality and duplicate publication
All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be considered by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. If duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the authors will be announced in this journal and their institutes will be informed, and there will be penalties for the authors.

Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Statement of animal rights
For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.

Conflict-of-interest statement
If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the manuscript.

All manuscripts are considered to be confidential and are reviewed by the editors, members of the Editorial Board, or other qualified reviewers. Each manuscript receives at least two simultaneous reviews. When a manuscript is submitted online, it is given a manuscript number and assigned to one of the editors. Each reviewer makes a specific recommendation to the editor for the manuscript, based on the following aspects as applicable: importance of the research, originality of the work, appropriateness of the experimental design, soundness of conclusions and interpretations, relevance of discussion, and demonstration of reproducibility. The corresponding author is notified an average of one month after submission of the editor’s decision to accept, reject, or require modification. When a manuscript is returned to the corresponding author for modification, it should be returned to the editor within two months; otherwise it may be considered withdrawn.

To maintain and protect the Society’s ownership and rights, and to protect the original authors from misappropriation of their work, MYCOBIOLOGY requires the corresponding author to sign a copyright transfer agreement on the behalf of all the authors. Unless this agreement is executed, MYCOBIOLOGY will not publish the manuscript. This agreement is sent with the proofs to the corresponding author.

Manuscripts accepted for publication in Mycobiology will be charged US $200 (200,000 won) for a processing fee. No page charges will be applied for a paper having up to five published pages. For each additional page, a US $50 (50,000 won) will be charged. The charge for each color page is US $100 (100,000 won). If authors want reprints, they must pay a reprint charge, which is US $30 (30,000 won) per 30 reprints. Additional reprints must be ordered in multiples of 30. A reprint order form filled with the amount and cost of reprints must be sent to our Mycobiology editorial office by the corresponding author during the proofreading. All manuscripts published in Mycobiology must be written in a standard quality of English. Papers with serious deficiencies in English may be returned without review. Mycobiology requires all of non-English-speaking authors to provide us a letter of proof for a professional editing service during submission. Authors are responsible for paying the professional editing service. Without this letter, each manuscript will have a professional editing service provided by the Mycobiology editorial office, which will be charged separately. English editing charge is different depending on number of pages. For detail informations, please inquire our editorial office.

Fast-track Publication
For authors who would like to facilitate the publication process of their manuscripts, a fast-track publication is available. In order to apply for this process, the authors should describe the significance of their work in the cover letter that justifies the fast-track publication. Once the fast-track publication is requested by corresponding authors through the online submission system, the whole review process will proceed as quickly as possible and the first decision will be made within 10 working days. However, the manuscript will be reviewed under normal standards of our journal. If the manuscript requires revision, the resubmitted revised manuscript also will be handled with the same fast-track process. For fast-track publication, the corresponding authors will be charged with 250,000 KRW (250 USD) once for the initial submission (no additional charge for the resubmission of the revised manuscript), in addition to normal page charges.

Authors must submit the manuscript file to the Editorial Office of MYCOBIOLOGY using the online submission system of the journal at http://www.mycology.or.kr. We do not accept direct email-submission to the Editor-in-Chief or Editors. Incomplete manuscripts will be returned to the author without review. Manuscripts submitted to the journal must represent reports of original research and must be written in English. Manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that no substantial portion of the study has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere and that its submission for publication has been approved by all of the authors or by the institution where the work was carried out. The usual prerequisites for publication will be originality, clarity, and significance as relevant to a better understanding of mycology. Manuscripts are accepted on the condition that recombinant plasmids and fungal strains developed in the course of the research will be available for distribution to all qualified members of the scientific community, either directly from the investigator(s) or by deposit in national or international collections. If revisions are required, the author has two months to revise the manuscript. After two months, the revised version must be submitted as a new manuscript.

Editorial Office of MYCOBIOLOGY
The Korean Society of Mycology
Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering
College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology
Korea University
Seoul 136-713, Korea
Phone: +82-2-953-8355; Fax: +82-2-953-8359
E-mail: ksm@mycology.or.kr; Homepage: http://www.mycology.or.kr

Manuscript preparation
Manuscripts should be prepared in MS Word format. The text should be double-spaced (a minimum of 6 mm between lines) throughout the manuscript including figure legends, table footnotes, and references. Manuscript pages must have margins of at least 1 inch on all four sides and should have line numbers. Pages should be numbered consecutively, with the title page as page 1. Place tables and figure legends after the References section. It is important that manuscripts be written in clear and grammatically correct English. Authors are encouraged to have colleagues review a manuscript before submitting it for publication.

Research articles
The full-length research article should be organized as follows: title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, and references. The results and discussion sections may be combined.

The title page
On the title page, include the title, running title, authors’ names and affiliations, footnotes to the title and any author who is no longer in the institute where the work was performed, as well as the complete address for the corresponding author including telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. If available, the author’s homepage address (URL) may be included. The title should be short, but clarity must be observed. Each manuscript should present the results of an independent and cohesive study; thus, numbered series titles are not permitted. The running title should not exceed 60 characters, including spaces.

Limit the abstract to 250 words or fewer with less than 5 keywords at the bottom. The abstract must be a summary for the whole paper from the introduction to the discussion. Avoid abbreviations and do not include references or diagrams.

The Introduction should supply the rationale for the investigation and its relation to other works in the same field, but should not include an extensive review of the literature.

Materials and Methods
The Materials and Methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. Refer to published procedures by citing both original description and pertinent published modifications. Do not include extensive details unless they present a substantial modification. For commonly used materials and methods, a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methodologies are commonly employed, it is useful to identify the methods briefly as well as to cite the references. Describe new methods completely and give sources of useful chemicals, equipment, or microbial strains.

Culture deposit:
MYCOBIOLOGY encourages authors to deposit important strains in publicly accessible culture collections and to refer to the collections and strain numbers in the text.

Nucleotide sequences:
It is expected that newly assigned GenBank/EMBL/DDJB accession numbers for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data will be included in the original manuscript or be inserted when the manuscript is modified. The accession number should be included in a separate paragraph at the end of the Materials and Methods section.

The Results section may be organized into subheadings and should include results, but extensive interpretation of the results should be reserved for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid presenting essentially similar data in both table and figure form. Also avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. Limit photographs to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables.

The Discussion section should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published works. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction. The Discussion may be organized into subheadings. Results and discussion may be combined.

Acknowledgements should be brief and should precede the references. The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the acknowledgments section.

References should be obviously related to documents and should not exceed 30 unless it is necessary. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Each reference should be cited as [1], [1, 4] or [1-3] at the end of the related phrases in the text. The abbreviated journal title should be used according to the NLM Catalog: Journals Referenced in the NCBI Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). List the first ten authors’ names if the number of authors is more than ten. Provide the first and final page numbers of the cited reference. Abstracts of conferences are not allowed to be included in the references. Otherwise not described here, it follows the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).

Journal articles:
1. Lee S, Lee SY, Shin KS. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Mycobiology 2009;37:17-20.
2. Shim SM, Oh YH, Lee KR, Kim SH, Im KH, Kim JW, Lee UY, Shim JO, Shim MJ, Lee MW, et al. The characteristics of cultural conditions for the mycelial growth of Macrolepiota procera. Mycobiology 2005;33:15-8.
If it is to be published on a website before paper is published offline
3. Kim MS, Kim SY, Yoon JK, Lee YW, Bahn YS. An efficient gene-disruption method in Cryptococcus neoformans by double-joint PCR with NAT-split markers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009 Oct 21 [Epub]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.10.089.

Entire book
4. Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CW, Blackwell M. Introductory mycology. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.

Part of a book
5. Matcham SE, Jordan BR, Wood DA. Method for assessment of fungal growth on solid substrate. In: Grainger JM, Lynch JM, editors. Microbiological methods for environmental biotechnology. London: Academic Press; 1984. p. 5-19.

Conference paper
6. Khodaparast SA. Diversity of sooty mold fungi in Guilan province, Iran. In: Proceeding of the IV Asia-pacific Mycological Congress; 2004 Nov 14-19; Chiang Mai, Thailand. Bankok: Thai Mycological Association; 2004. p. 132-6.

7. Kim YU. Solid culture of Pleurotus sapidus [dissertation]. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota; 1994.

8. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Genebank overview [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biomedical Information; 2009 [cited 2009 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank.

Each table should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text. Each table should be double-spaced and on a separate page. The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without reference to the text. Explanatory footnotes are acceptable, but should not include detailed descriptions of the experiment.

Each figure should be in a finished form suitable for publication. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals, and indicate the name of the first author at the top right-hand corner. MYCOBIOLOGY accepts PowerPoint, TIFF, or EPS files for illustrations and images in figures. For reviewing purposes, PDF files are recommended. When the manuscript is in the final stage of revision, the authors should provide PowerPoint, TIFF, or EPS files for each figure, but not PDF files. Computergenerated images and photos should be minimally manipulated. Processing, such as changing brightness, contrast, or color balance, is acceptable if the adjustment is applied to all parts of the image. Unprocessed, raw data and files may be requested by the editor. All graphics must be bitmap, grayscale, or in the RGB (red, green, blue) color mode. All graphics should be submitted at their intended publication size so that no reduction or enlargement is necessary. The cost of color reproduction must be paid by the authors. Only high-resolution figure files (preferably 300 dpi for grayscale and color, 600 dpi for combination art that includes lettering and images, and 1,200 dpi for line art).

Figure legends
Figure legends should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without frequent reference to the text. However, detailed experimental methods must be described in the Materials and Methods section. Define all symbols used in the figure, and define all abbreviations if they are first mentioned in the figure.

Research notes
Submit research notes in the same manner as regular articles. They receive the same review, and are not published more rapidly than regular articles. They are not considered to be preliminary communications. Research notes must have an abstract of no more than 150 words. Do not use section headings in the body of the paper; report methods, results, and discussion in a single section. The number of figures and tables should also be kept to a minimum. Acknowledgements and references should be identical to those of regular articles.

Mini-reviews are brief summaries (limit of 8 printed pages) of developments in fast-moving areas of mycology. Mini-reviews may be either solicited or submitted by authors responding to a recognized need. Irrespective of origin, mini-reviews are subjected to editorial review. There is no prescribed layout for mini-reviews, but the tables and citation style should conform to the guidelines for regular research articles.

Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of mycology. Editorials should not exceed 2,000 words, excluding references, tables, and figures.

Letters to the editor
Letters to the editor should include brief constructive comments that concern previously published articles and interesting cases. Letters to the editor should be submitted no more than 3 months after the paper has been published. Cover pages should be formatted in the same manner as those of mycological papers. Do not include a title page. The corresponding author should be the first author. Body text should not exceed 500 words and should have references. Letters may be edited by the Editorial Board, and if necessary, responses by the author of the subject paper may be provided.

Verb tense

It is recommended that authors use the past tense to describe particular events in the past, including the procedures, observations, and data of the study that authors are reporting. Use the present tense for the authors’ own general conclusions, firm conclusions of previous researchers, and generally accepted facts and phenomena. The Abstract, Materials and Methods, and Results are generally in the past tense, whereas most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion are in the present tense. However, the tense may vary within a single sentence. For example, it can be stated that ‘‘It was demonstrated that stress response of Cryptococcus neoformans is regulated by the HOG pathway’’ and ‘‘Fig. 3 shows that morphology of Candida albicans switched from yeast form to filamentous form in response to high concentrations of carbon dioxide’’.

Description of localities
Standard guidelines for the description of locality names should be used. In the case of the Republic of Korea, refer to the Guidelines for the Romanization of Korean Localities (http://www.korean.go.kr/09_new/dic/rule/rule_roman.jsp).

Standard metric units should be used for describing length, height, weight, and volume. Temperature should be given in degrees Celsius (oC). All others should follow the International System of Units (SI). All units must be preceded by one space except percentage (%) and temperature (oC).

In the text, numbers should be Arabic numerals, except when beginning a sentence. Numbers greater than 999 should have commas, e.g., 13,970. The 24-hour system is used to indicate time, e.g., 18:00 hr.

Abbreviations must be used as an aid to the reader, rather than as a convenience for the author, and therefore their use should be limited. Generally, avoid abbreviations that are used less than 3 times in the text, including tables and figure legends. In addition to abbreviations for SI units, common molecular, chemical, immunological, and hematological terms can be used without definition in the title, abstract, text, tables, and figure legends, e.g., bp, kb, kDa, DNA, cDNA, RNA, mRNA, PCR, SDS-PAGE, ELISA, IgG, RBC, and WBC. Other common abbreviations are as follows (the same abbreviations are used for plural forms): hr (hour; use 0-24:00 hr for time), sec (second), min (minute), day (not abbreviated), wk (week), mon (month), yr (year), L (liter), mL (milliliter), μL (microliter), g (gram), kg (kilogram), mg (milligram), μg (microgram), ng (nanogram), pg (picogram), n (sample size), SD (standard deviation of the mean), SE (standard error of the mean).

Notice: These recently revised instructions for authors will be applied beginning with the 2010 issue.